Saxony Rulers

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Saxony Rulers




Konrad the Grosse   Otto the Reiche  Albrecht the Stolze
1127 - 1154         1156 - 1190          1190 - 1196



















The Franks under Charlemagne slowly conquered the pagan Saxon tribes (782-804). The Saxons were initially subsumed by the Frankish Empire, but emerged as a separate kingdom during the Carolingian fragmentation that followed.

888 -918

Saxony emerges as one of the more powerful stem duchies in East Francia (kings of Germany), once the formal split is made between East and West Franks. The earliest dukes seize the throne of East Francia and under Otto I create what comes to be known the Holy Roman Empire.

AD 888 - 962

880 - 912

Otto the Illustrious

912 - 936

Henry I the Fowler King of the Saxons (918-936).

936 - 973

Otto I the Great King. First Emperor of German Roman Empire (962-973).

962 -1025

Otto's line continues as Holy Roman Emperors.

AD 962 - 1260

There came to be some conflict in Saxony between the Hohenstaufen and Welf dukes. The former went on to become HREs while the latter seemed to lose out and were granted the Duchy of Brunswick as compensation.

962 - 973

Hermann Billung

973 - 1011

Bernard I

1011 - 1059

Bernard II

1059 - 1072


1072 - 1106


1106 - 1127

Lothar II of Germany HRE (1125-1137).

1127 - 1138

Henry II (IV) Welf, the Proud Duke Henry XI of Bavaria.

1138 - 1142

Albert I the Bear Gained the Margraviate of North March & formed Brandenburg.

1142 - 1180

Henry III (V) Welf, the Lion Duke Henry XII of Bavaria.

1180 - 1212

Bernard III

1212 - 1260

Albert II Margrave of Brandenburg (1205-1260). 

1260 - 1356

Interregnum? During this period the feud between the Hohenstaufens and Welfs reaches its peak. Saxony is divided between Saxe-Lauenberg (in the west) and Saxe-Wittenberg (in the east). Only the eastern part retains its name, and is much reduced in stature, now being a mere Electorate.

AD 1356 - 1806

The title of the duchy of Saxony had passed to the Margraves of Meissen, a march county between the original Saxon lands and Poland. Later Saxony was situated east and south of the original duchy. The original duchy lands eventually became known as Upper Saxony, and were subsumed within Westphalia. The newer lands around the Lower Elbe became Lower Saxony, and this is where the name survived until the end of the German Empire.

As with many German states, territory began to be divided with formal and permanent divisions between heirs, and some of these were never undone by succeeding generations. There could be as many dukes as there were heirs, but only one of them could retain the title Elector of Saxony. So the first division of Saxony was between Electorate and Duchy. Saxe Weimar became Saxony's principle duchy, and was eventually elevated to a grand duchy.

1356 - 1370

Rudolf II of Saxe-Wittenberg

1370 - ?


? - 1419 

Rudolf III d.1419. 

1419 - 1422

Albert III

1423 - 1428

Frederick I the Warlike Duke & Elector. 

1439 - 1482

William III Rival Duke of Luxemburg (1439-1482).

1428 - 1464

Frederick II the Gentle Elector. Ruled in absentia?


The electorate's territory is divided between Ernest and Albert. Ernest's line holds the electorship for a few generations before the Albertines gain precedence.

1464 - 1486

Ernest Elector. Founder of the Line of Ernestine.

1464 - 1500

Albert the Bold Duke. Founder of the Line of Albertine.

1473 - 1541

Henry the Pious Albertine, Duke.

1486 - 1525

Frederick III the Wise Ernestine, Elector.

1500 - 1539

George the Bearded Albertine, Duke.

1525 - 1532

John the Constant Ernestine. Elector.

1532 - 1547

John Frederick the Magnanimous Ernestine Elector. Duke (1532-1554).


The Albertines gain the electorship and retain it permanently.

1547 - 1553

Maurice Albertine Duke (1541-1553).

1554 - 1595

John Frederick II Ernestine Duke. John William Ernestine Duke of Saxe-Weimar (1572-1573).

1553 - 1586


1586 - 1591

Christian I

1591 - 1611

Christian II

1611 - 1656

John George I

1656 - 1680

John George II

1680 - 1691

John George III

1691 - 1694

John George IV

1694 - 1734

Frederick Augustus I Also Augustus II the Strong, first Saxon king of Poland.

1734 - 1763

Frederick Augustus II Son. Also King of Poland.

1763 - 1806

Frederick Augustus III Christian Leopold Son.


The electorate is elevated to a kingdom by Napoleon Bonaparte on 11th December.

AD 1806 - 1918

1806 - 1827

Frederick Augustus I Christian Leopold Kingdom halved by Prussia in 1814.


By this time there exists alongside the Kingdom of Saxony, the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, and the Duchies of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Hildburghausen, and Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.


The wife of the duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld is heiress to Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, so the latter title falls to Saxe-Coburg as Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. The duke's son, Albert, marries (in 1839) Queen Victoria of England, and one of his sons later inherits the title. Saxe-Altenburg is detached from Saxe-Gotha and passes to Saxe-Hildburghausen. The latter duke exchanges this for his old territory, which passes to Saxe-Meiningen.

1827 - 1836

Anthony Clement

1836 - 1854

Frederick Augustus II

1854 - 1873



The kingdom annexed as part of the German Empire by Prussia. Ironically, Prussia itself was originally created out of the margraviate of Brandenburg, which the original Dukes of Saxony helped create. Saxony now occupies the position of a sub-kingdom.

1873 - 1902


1902 - 1904


1904 - 1918

Friedrich, Last King of Saxony.


All German monarchies are abolished upon the defeat of the German Empire in World War I.

AD 1918 - Present Day

1918 - 1932


 1932 - ?

George, Eldest son.


Frederick Christian, Second son.


Emanuel, Son.

Text from Kessler

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