Countryside Kaliningrad Moscow 1963 Moscow 1995 Moscow 2001 Moscow 2007 Saint Petersburg



now Kaliningrad, part of Russia


Cranz Immanuel Kant


view of old town
(destroyed in WW II, only cathedral rebuilt)

Kaliningrad, formerly Königsberg, city, western Russia, on the Pregolya River. The capital of Kaliningrad Oblast, it is a major industrial and commercial center, connected by channel with Baltiysk, an ice-free port on the Baltic Sea. 


the port


old German granary on the seaport

Among its principal manufactures are ships, machinery, chemicals, paper, and lumber. Historic landmarks in Kaliningrad include the Schloss, or Castle (1255), and a cathedral (14th century). The German philosopher Immanuel Kant, a native of the city, taught at its university (now Kaliningrad State University), which was established in 1544.


Kant's Cathedral
(restored, after being destroyed in WW II)

Photos of Kant Memorial

The city, founded in 1255 as a fortress by the Teutonic Knights, became a member of the Hanseatic League in 1340. From 1457 to 1525 it was the official seat of the grand master of the Teutonic Knights, and from 1525 to (1618) it was the residence of the dukes of Prussia. 

German fortress
(now the Amber Museum)

Frederick I was crowned as the first king of Prussia in the chapel of the Schloss in 1701. During World War I (1914-18) the city was the scene of heavy fighting between the Germans and the Russians. Following the war it was made the capital of the German province of East Prussia. 


German military barracks



The city was severely damaged in World War II (1945-45), and in 1945, after a two-month siege, it was occupied by Soviet troops.


Soviet General who led Red Army in capture of Königsberg
(old German Fortress in background)

 By agreement among the Allies at the Potsdam Conference (1945) the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) annexed the city and surrounding territory. In 1946 the city's name was changed from Königsberg to Kaliningrad, in honor of the Soviet leader M. I. Kalinin. Population (1990 estimate) 406,000.


M. I. Kalinin
(never lived in or visited Königsberg)


Sunday fishing in the harbor


a Baltic seacoast town

Photos of Cranz


new Communist Party Headquarters
(unfinished since 1991)


and new cars from the West
imported into this special economic zone of Russia

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Cranz Immanuel Kant

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